Following the political changes in Eastern Europe at the end
of the 1980s, the organization and availability of Polish
mapping has changed radically and is still evolving. Prior
to that time, two government organizations worked cooperatively
to produce topographic mapping: the Polish Army
Cartographic Service and the civilian Glówny Urzad
Geodezji i Kartografii (GUGiK). The state commercial publishing organization is, Polskie
Przedsiebiorstwo Wydawnictw Kartograficznych (PPWK).
In 1987, GUGiK was abolished and civilian governmental
mapping was put initially under the control of the Ministry
of Physical Planning and Construction. In 1989 a new
National Geodetic and Cartographic Service was created
under the Department of the Surveyor General (Glówny
Geodetu Kraju (GGK)), and in 1991, a Center for Geodetic
and Cartographic Documentation (Centralny Osrodek
Documentacji Geodezynej I Kartograficznej) was established. Further restructuring took place in 1997 with
the re-establishment of a Head Office of Geodesy and
Cartography, and new administrative reforms introduced in
1999 will lead to a decentralization of official map production.
Meanwhile the military survey, Wojskowe Zaklady
Kartograficzne (WZK) has continued to provide topographic
and thematic maps for the armed forces, but also
now publishes maps designed for civilian use.
The Polish military survey, established in 1919, was reorganized
after World War II, and a new topographic mapping
programme was initiated in 1952, conforming to the Soviet-1942
specification (Krassovsky ellipsoid, Kronstadt datum)
used by all the Eastern bloc countries at that time. A new primary
triangulation and levelling program was also undertaken
and completed in the 1960s. Military map series were
published at scales of 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:100,000 and
1:200,000, using sheet lines derived from the International
map of the World. From 1955, a more detailed survey at
1:10,000 scale (or 1:5,000 for some areas) was also begun.
Civilian mapping had meanwhile been produced at scales of
1:25,000 and 1:100,000. In 1976, this was superseded by
new mapping using the 1965 state coordinate system, and
series were produced at scales of 1:10,000, 1:25,000 and
1:50,000, but they were based on five projection zones, each
with its own meridian which introduced problems of edge
matching between zones. Consequently, in the late 1970s a
new uniform mapping system was adopted, the GUGiK-1980
system, on a quasi-stereographic projection. A
1:100,000 scale series was completed using this system.
Following the reorganization of the national mapping enterprise
in the late 1980s, new printings were made of the
existing topographic series. However, they had become rather
out-of-date, and in the 1990s, new and revised mapping has
began to appear. GGK is responsible for the basic-scale
1:10,000 topo-cadastral map, and currently a redesigned
version of this map is being issued, with a 10-year
program for its completion in 16,140 sheets. By 1999,
about 1,000 sheets had been issued. There is a two-color
planning version of this map, while the full four-color
version provides a wealth of information including much
land use detail.
A new 1:50,000 scale topographic series was initiated in
1993, and the first sheet were issued in 1995. It is derived
from the 1:10,000 scale map and is designed for civilian
use. The legend is in Polish and English, and the map is
on the National Geodetic Coordinate System PSWG '92.
Sheets each cover 10' latitude by 15' longitude, and are
printed in six or seven colors. There is a 10 m contour
interval. This edition will eventually total 1,080 sheets.
A new tourist edition began
production in 1993, published by WZK, and was completed
by the end of 1999. This edition is in 151 double-quad
sheets with the sheet numbering paired. Sheets include tourism symbols and have a touring
guide on the reverse side. Another tourist series at this scale
is published by PPWK.
At 1:200,000 scale, there is a complete cover of Poland in a
civilian edition of the 1942-system military mapping,
printed in the late 1980s. This map is in four colors with
a 20 m contour interval and sheets have been designed with
an integral cover. A six-sheet general map at 1:500,000 was
derived from the 1:100,000 scale map prepared by the
Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish
Academy of Sciences. It is also incorporated in the Polish national atlas.
The 1:50,000 scale topographic series is used as a base map
for a new Mapa sozologiczna, showing areas of contaminated
land and point pollution sources, as well as protected landscapes.
It also forms the base of a new series of hydrological
maps, Mapa hydrograficzna, which show land use and
surface and subsurface water features. Both series replace
earlier series issued in the 1980s.
Other small scale maps published under the auspices of GGK
include administrative and aeronautical maps.
Soviet military topographic mapping of Poland exists at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (5 sheets, complete coverage, published 1979-1990);
1:500,000 (16 sheets, complete coverage, published 1978-1990); 1:200,000 (86 sheets, complete coverage, published 1965-1995); 1:100,000 (287 sheets, complete coverage,
published 1976-1993); 1:50,000 (1,069 sheets, complete coverage, published 1975-1995) and city (1:10,000 to 1:25,000) topographic mapping of 25 major cities from Biala to Zielona Gora
published between 1965 and 1998. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial.