Until recently, the two major government mapping authorities
in Romania have been the Military Topographic
Department (Directia Topografica Militara (DTM)), and
the Institute for Geodesy, Photogrammetry, Cartography
and Land Management (Institutul de Geodezie, Fotogrammetrie,
Cartografie, si Organizarea Teritoriului
(IGFCOT)). This situation has recently changed, following
a decision in 1996 by the Romanian Government to establish
a combined civilian National Office of Cadastre, Geodesy
and Cartography (Oficiul National de Cadastru,
Geodezie si Cartografie (ONCGC). Maps continued to be
published under the imprint of the previous organizations
into the late 1990s.
The DTM operated within the Ministry of Defence, and has
been responsible for carrying out geodetic survey and the
production of topographic mapping for military purposes
and for use by other official state organizations since 1859. Topographic
survey at a basic scales of 1:20,000 or 1:10,000
made good progress from 1875, and continued up until the
First World War. Subsequently, in the inter-war years, a
series of Directorial Plans at 1:20,000 was compiled for the
whole country, together with derived maps at 1:100.000 and
Following the Conference of East European Cartographic and
Geodetic Services held at Sofia in 1952, new topographic
series were initiated according to the Soviet 1942 system. The projection is Gauss-Krϋger, Krassovsky
ellipsoid, while a modified polyconic projection has been
used for 1:500,000 and 1:1,000,000 scales. Sheet lines
conform with the International map of the World system, and
printing is in seven colors.
Soviet military topographic mapping of Romania exists at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (7 sheets, complete coverage, published 1979-1990);
1:500,000 (15 sheets, complete coverage, published 1977-1989); 1:200,000 (64 sheets, complete coverage, published 1970-1993); 1:100,000 (202 sheets, complete coverage,
published 1973-1984); 1:50,000 (731 sheets, complete coverage, published 1971-1994) and city (1:10,000 to 1:15,000) topographic mapping of 35 major cities from Alba Iulia to Zimnicea
published between 1950 and 1987. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial.
From 1958, a number of town maps at scales of 1:5,000 or
1:10,000 were also made, initially on the
Gauss-Krϋger projection, but after 1970 on a stereographic
projection. More than 100 such sheets have been produced.
There is also a street map of Bucharest in four sheets at
1:15,000 derived from larger scale surveys, which is revised
The 1:50,000 series in 737 sheets is now regarded as the
base map. It was revised in the period 1965-72 using aerial
photographs, and is currently being updated again with the
intention of establishing a revision cycle of five to six years.
The 1:25,000 will be retained, but revision only at 15-20-year
intervals, except for sheets covering areas of rapid
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