Since 1983 the General Command of Mapping, (Harita
Genel Komutanligi (HGK)) has been responsible for
geodetic, topographic and aerial surveying of Turkey and for
publication of official map series. Its history can be traced
to the establishment in 1895 of a military mapping section
in the general staff, which began the systematic survey of
the whole country. A 1:25,000 scale topographic map was
started in 1909 and remains the basic scale. Early sheets
were on the Bonne projection, from 1931 the Gauss Krϋger
projection was adopted and since 1950 sheets have been
based on the UTM grid and projection, Hayford ellipsoid.
This series was completed in 5,564 sheets and is under
photogrammetric revision, the second edition of these maps
was completed in 1996. Relief is shown with 20 m contours
and the map is in five colors. Since 1994 map components
have been digitized. From 1996 data capture started for the
establishment of a 1:25,000 scale based national geographical
information system, and a digital production flowline is
now used for production of hard copy mapping in this series.
A 1:50,000 scale map (Series K716) is being revised using
stereo SPOT satellite imagery; sheets were originally derived
from parent 1:25,000 maps and cover 15' quadrangles. The
series was completed between 1973 and 1995 with about
1,500 maps needed for complete coverage. 1:100,000 scale
mapping is also complete for the country in 339 sheets. The
first edition of this series was completed between 1950 and
1972 by generalization from 1:25,000 scale coverage. A
second edition was derived from 1:50,000 scale components
and is nearing completion. There are plans to generate these
maps in the future from the 1:25,000 scale data base, but
in 1999 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scale series were still
produced using conventional cartographic methods.
There are also moves to establish a Turkish national fundamental
GPS network to offer more accurate horizontal and
vertical survey control.
New 1:250,000 scale mapping conforming to JOG specifications
was revised in the 1980s. In 1998 gazetteer data
from this source were captured in digital form
and there are plans to produce an ARC/INFO-based
1:250,000 scale GIS.
Smaller scale series include 1:500,000 coverage conforming
to (Series 1404) specifications, and a road map series at this
scale prepared in conjunction with German commercial
house Ryborsch. A 1:1,000,000 scale national digital
geographic database for the country is being established.
HGK, also publishes Turkish sheets in the International map of
the World (IMW), and a number of smaller scale administrative and
Soviet military topographic mapping of Turkey is available at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (11 sheets, complete coverage, published 1974-1990);
1:500,000 (29 sheets, complete coverage, published 1971-1989); 1:200,000 (169 sheets, complete coverage, published 1970-1991); 1:100,000 (590 sheets, complete coverage,
published 1970-1994); 1:50,000 (1,418 sheets, complete coverage, published 1971-2002) and city (1:10,000 to 1:25,000) topographic mapping of 30 major cities from Adana to
Zonguldak published between 1976 and 1994. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial.
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