Canada

28,526 total products were found covering Canada.
Next, select filters, series, and products from the sections below the map.

In Canada mapping is undertaken by agencies of both federal and provincial governments. In topographic surveying and mapping, the federal government is responsible for the first-order geodetic network and for mapping at scales of 1:50,000 and smaller. Provincial governments and metropolitan authorities take on the tasks of more detailed mapping, usually at 1:20,000 scale or larger, as required for resource development, cadastral purposes and for urban planning. Similarly, much thematic mapping, including mineral, soil, land use and forest surveys, is carried out by provincial agencies, with or without federal cooperation. Since the first edition of the book, all these agencies have begun to digitize their map data, to build databases and implement geographical information systems, and to develop instruments and protocols for the distribution of data in digital formats. An umbrella organization, the Canadian Council on Geomatics (CCOG), has provided a forum for federal and provincial agencies to discuss problems of common interest, and together with the Inter-Agency Committee on Geomatics has guided the development of common standards for the exchange of geographical data. Most federal mapping in Canada falls within the ambit of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). Beginning in 1992, NRCan has undergone restructuring, and in 1994 its Surveys, Mapping and Remote Sensing Sector became Geomatics Canada (GC). Together with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Polar Continental Shelf Project, they form the Earth Science Sector of NRCan. The mission of Geomatics Canada is to maintain the national survey and mapping databases, and to produce both digital and paper-based products, including topographic maps, aeronautical charts, aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Geomatics Canada is divided into a number of services and divisions, which include the Legal Surveys and International Boundary Commission, the Geodetic Survey Division, Cartographic Services and the Canada Center for Remote Sensing. Topographic mapping is managed by the Canada Center for Topographic Information (CTI-O), Ottawa, which incorporates the Canada Map Office. A further Center for Topographic Information (CTI-S) is located at Sherbrooke, Quebec, and this is concerned with producing and maintaining the National Topographic Data Base (NTDB) and other digital data sets, and for creating the CGDI data alignment layer. Modern topographic mapping of Canada dates from 1922, when a Board of Topographic Surveys and Maps was established to coordinate the rather haphazard situation that had resulted from the activities of three major mapping authorities which then existed. The Board set out to ensure the adoption of uniform mapping standards and to devise a national topographic system of scales and sheet lines. The projection eventually adopted in 1946 was the Universal Transverse Mercator with the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid. Sheet lines for the topographic series are graticule-based, and are broken down from primary quadrangles each covering 8° longitude and 4°. This sheet system is officially known as the National Topographic System or NTS, and it is important to note that it differs from the International map of the World (IMW) system which is used by many countries, and which is based on a 6° division of longitude. IMW sheet lines are used in Canada only for the 1:1,000,000 IMW maps themselves, for some thematic maps at this scale, and for 1:250,000 Joint Operations Graphic (JOG) charts. The scales of early NTS series of maps were based on imperial units, but these were later phased out in favor of the ratios 1:50,000, 1:125,000, 1:250,000 and 1:500,000. In 1953, 1:25,000 scale maps were also added to this family. Only two federal series now survive, the basic scale 1:50,000, and the 1:250,000 national series. A set of 1:1,000,000 sheets in International map of the World specification was published in the 1960s and 1970s, and some sheets were revised in the 1980s, but the series is no longer maintained. Although the 1:500,000 scale topographic map has also been discontinued, aeronautical charts are still published at this scale. The 1:250,000 scale series was completed in 917 sheets in 1970. It had originated in 1923 as a four miles to the inch (1:253,440) map, the present scale ratio being introduced in 1950. The series progressed rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, following a complete trilateration of the country and the provision of a comprehensive air photographic cover, from which maps could be compiled by photogrammetry. As is common with long-lived series, there have been a number of specification changes to the 1:250,000 scale series, and because some sheets have been revised more frequently than others, there are dissimilarities between sheets of different areas. The modern sheets are printed in six colors with contours ranging in interval from 20 m to 200 m according to the prevailing terrain. A red stipple is used for built-up areas. Roads are shown in color and classified according to suitability for traffic. The UTM grid is shown in light blue at 10 km intervals. Several revision cycles have been established to satisfy differing rates of landscape change, with a 10-year cycle for the most settled areas. The 1:50,000 scale was adopted in 1950, replacing the inch to the mile (1:63,360) series, and all subsequent new maps were published at this scale, while others were progressively converted by photographic enlargement. Other elements of metrication, contours and distances, were not introduced until 1975. Since 1977, all new maps have also been fully bilingual in English and French. About 13,000 sheets are required for complete cover of Canada, and with the exceptions of some areas of the Arctic, principally Baffin Island and Ellesmere Island, this basic scale map is now practically complete. The standard 1:50,000 map is in six colors, but a substantial number of sheets in the wilderness areas of the north have been published only in monochrome or as photomaps. Over 12,000 published sheets now exist in this series. The sheets are of a common 15 minute by 30 minute format (until 1967, a half-sheet format had been used in the south), and all sheets have the UTM grid usually printed in blue or purple. Information content includes much attention to road classification (on the colored sheets) while the northern sheets take account of the variety of swamp types, and of special relief forms such as eskers and pingos, which have their own symbols. Contour interval varies with the type of relief from 5 m in flat areas to 40 m in very rugged ones. A new specification for the 1:50,000 scale map has recently been designed, and a prototype sheet was issued in 1996. Sheets are to be revised and digitized, and printing will in future use the four colour process. New image maps of northern Canada are being published in color. Soviet military topographic mapping of Canada is available at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (86 sheets, complete coverage, published 1961-1993); 1:500,000 (306 sheets, complete coverage, published 1962-1995) and city (1:25,000) topographic mapping of Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal, Ottawa, St. John's, Toronto and Vancouver published between 1973 and 2003. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial. Provincial mapping Although substantial mapping programs are carried out by federal agencies, as described above, all the provinces also have their own mapping agencies. Most operate large scale provincial topographic and cadastral programs. Many of these organizations have been restructured, and in some cases partially privatized, to accommodate a wider remit, including digital mapping and the implementation of GIS. Alberta Responsibilities for provincial mapping in Alberta were reorganized in 1995 with the creation of a Resource Data Division within the Land and Forest Service of Alberta Environmental Protection. The Division comprises a Data Acquisition, a Data Management and a Director of Surveys Branch. This new structure reflects the change of focus from paper map production to the production and management of digital spatial data for the GIS environment, and to the commodification of this data. The Division is currently involved in developing a new series of GIS mapping, including a Base features program and the Alberta vegetation inventory program. The Director of Surveys Branch has responsibility for the Alberta Survey Control Network, and a provincial readjustment to the new Canadian Spatial Reference System is under way. Previously, several provincial digital data sets had been developed, including a 1:20,000 scale digital base map series completed in 1996, which provides full coverage of the province except for the national parks, and incorporates a 10 m or 20 m contour interval. With the completion of this series, the Alberta Government decided to cease direct funding of this spatial data infrastructure, and a nonprofit company. The Spatial Data Warehouse (SDW) was established as a government/private partnership to take over the storage and maintenance of digital mapping. Subsequently, a private company AltaLIS Ltd was contracted to assist SDW. British Columbia In recent years, the BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MELP) has adopted a totally digital production of maps and related materials. Geographic Data BC (GDBC) is responsible for this digital program, and $10 million have been invested in developing the system. The aim is to encourage the sharing of data between the various ministries of the provincial government and industrial organizations. The BC Digital Atlas provides a common framework for the various data sets. An impressive suite of digital products has been developed. These include vector data at 1:2,000,000, 1:250,000 and 1:20,000 scales. The capture of the 1:20,000 scale base mapping, known as TRIM (Terrain Resource Information Management program), was completed in 1996 and represents no fewer than 7,027 sheets, each covering 12 minutes of longitude by 6 minutes of latitude. The projection is UTM, NAD83 datum, and contouring is at 20 m intervals. Manitoba The Manitoba Land Information Center (LMIC), was established in 1993, bringing together the Manitoba Government's mapping and land management interests in order to promote a more integrated approach to the provision of land related data. There is a 1:20,000 scale topographic mapping program for the more populous southern part of the province, and also a program of orthophoto mapping with a scale resolution of 1:10,000 for agricultural areas. A 'spatial data warehouse' has been established under the Manitoba Land Related Information System (MLRIS) and this is managed for the province by a private company, Linnet, as the Land Information Navigator. New Brunswick In 1989, the Provincial Government established a corporation (initially called the New Brunswick Geographic Information Corporation) to manage cadastral survey and registration, land valuation, topographic mapping and to deal with GIS requirements. In 1996 its remit was broadened, with a change of name to Service New Brunswick (SNB). Cadastral maps of the entire province have been converted to digital format and hard copy property maps are available. SNB is also developing an online land records management system, PLANET. Topographic mapping is available in digital format at scales of 1:10,000, 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. This data together form the Enhanced Topographic Database of 1996 (ETB96). Conversion of this data to the NAD83 (CSRS) datum is in progress. The basic scale resource map at 1:10,000 scale is available both digitally and as color orthophoto maps with 5 m contours. A recent project has been the production of 326 coastal zone sheets in the form of digital color orthophotos with 1 m ground resolution. A coastal topographic and a coastal lands database are also in preparation from this photography, which was flown in 1996-97. Newfoundland-Labrador The topographic base mapping of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador now falls under the remit of the Surveys and Mapping Division (SMD) of the Lands Branch of the Government Services and Lands Department, created in 1996. The division is also responsible for geodetic survey, aerial photography, property mapping, the development of digital data standards, and for the provincial Geographical Names Board. SMD has produced community mapping at scales of 1:2,500 or 1:5,000 for most of Newfoundland and parts of Labrador. Nearly 4,000 of these maps have been produced, and in 1992 specifications were developed for digital map production. 1:50,000 and 1:250,000 scale NTS maps have also been digitized through a cost-sharing program with the federal government. SMD has also produced small scale wall maps of Newfoundland and Labrador, and electoral boundary mapping. Northwest Territories Detailed community mapping is undertaken by the Surveys and Mapping Branch within the Department of Municipal and Community Affairs, Whitehorse. Maps at 1:2,000 scale are available, usually with 1 m contours, and new digital mapping is being prepared from recent air photography of the communities. Nova Scotia Topographic mapping is a responsibility of the Land Information Services Division of the Nova Scotia Department of Housing and Municipal Affairs. The division has three sections, of which the Nova Scotia Geomatics Centre (NSGC) at Amherst is directly responsible for creation and maintenance of the Nova Scotia Topographic Database (NSTDB). This includes provincial orthophoto, planimetric and contour mapping at 1:10,000 scale, mapping of urban centers at scales of 1:1,000, 1:2,000 or 1:5,000, and the NTS 1:50,000 and 1:250,000 scale mapping. NSGC also manages the provincial coordinate system, property records and air photography. The province has a corporate strategy for the overall development, coordination and standardization of geographical information which operates under the name of GeoNOVA. Nunavut The new territory of Nunavut was created in 1993, and achieved self-government in 1999. It is covered by the NRCan map of Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory (Map MCR 36) on which the new boundary was overprinted in 1994. Another map of Inuit owned lands is available. An atlas was published in 1992 by the Canadian Circum Polar Institute, Edmonton, which includes material collected to support the land claims agreement reached in 1991 and on which the establishment of the territory is based. A Nunavut Planning Commission was established in 1996 and is preparing land use plans for the territory and mapping its wildlife resources, areas of human impact, waste sites and relicts of the cultural heritage of the population. Much attention has been given to the collection and reinstatement of Inuit place names as a means of maintaining the cultural identity of the people. Initially this took place around the Inuit settlement of Nunavik at the instigation of the Avataq Cultural Institute, and a series of 1:50,000 topographic map sheets has been in progress consisting of the official NTS base maps to which the Inuit names have been added. Currently a South Baffin Place Names Project is underway by the Nunavut Research Institute, and the names collected will be printed on 1:250,000 scale topographic map sheets. Ontario Ontario's basic mapping program (OBM) was begun in 1976 and is carried out by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). OBM maps have been published at 1:10,000 scale with 5 m contours for the south of the province, and at 1:20,000 with 20 m contours for the near north. The projection and grid are UTM with a standard 50 × 50 cm sheet format. The production of these printed paper maps continued until 1988 when the specification was modified to accommodate the requirements of the Provincial Digital Topographic Database. The digital OBM program was completed in 1998, providing large scale data for all of southern Ontario and the near north. A project to digitize the 1:50,000 NTS maps covering the area north of latitude 50° is under way with joint provincial and federal funding, and there are plans also to create digital maps for the Hudson Bay Lowlands presently covered only by photomaps. Planimetric mapping of urban areas has been undertaken at 1:2,000 scale with a 1 m contour interval, but this mapping is now produced by the municipalities. Prince Edward Island In Prince Edward Island the topographic base mapping is the responsibility of the Department of the Provincial Treasury, Geomatics Information Center, Information Technology and Geomatics Services Section. Digital and hard copy Enhanced topographic base mapping at 1:10,000 scale is maintained for the whole province together with cadastral mapping at 1:5,000 scale and larger scale mapping of the urban centers of Charlottetown (1:2,000) and Summerside (1:1,000). The 1:10,000 scale map was derived initially from 1985 and 1988 aerial photography, and contours are being added to the series with a 2 m interval. Many additional layers of graphical information have also been captured, mostly of administrative boundaries. A new high precision GPS network has been developed as part of the Canadian Spatial Reference System. Quebec Topographic mapping of Quebec is published by the province's Ministère des Ressources Naturelles (MRN), Secteur des Terres. The principal topographic series is the 1:20,000 scale base map, covering Quebec south of latitude 51° N. Sheets are indexed on the Système québécois de référence cartographique (SQRC), and are available in both printed and in structured digital vector format, forming the Base de données topographiques du Québec (BDTQ). The digital program was completed in 1999. A cadastral version of the 1:20,000 scale map is also published. A Base des données topographiques et administratives (BDTA), scale 1:250,000, has been constructed from topographic data contained in the federal 1:50,000 scale series and administrative boundaries from a digital boundaries data set, the Fichier informatique des limites administratives (FILA). Smaller scale databases are being constructed at scales of 1:1,000,000 Base de données géographiques et administratives (BDGA) and 1:8,000,000 Base générale et administrative du Québec (BGAQ). Saskatchewan SaskGeomatics Division of Saskatchewan Property Management Corporation, has replaced the former Central Survey and Mapping Agency and is developing SaskGIS, a provincial database providing topographic, cadastral and small scale mapping in digital format. It will also include a road network database linked to an address and property register, and digital orthophotos and satellite imagery. A SaskGIS data directory is being prepared. SaskGeomatics is also responsible for the coordination of GIS implementation throughout the province, and works with both government and private sector to this end. Other responsibilities include management of the provincial legal survey system, geodetic control, and the production of provincial topographic and cadastral maps. Since 1997, the province has been fully covered by topographic maps at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000, completed under a joint federal-provincial program. These topographic maps are being captured as structured digital data. For larger scale cover, new orthophotos are being produced at 1:20,000 or 1:15,000 scale, funded through private-public partnerships. A 24-class land cover map of the province is being prepared from LANDSAT imagery. Yukon In 1992, the Yukon Geographic Information System Coordinating Unit (YGISCU) was established with the support of the Yukon Territorial Government, the Federal Government and the City of Whitehorse. Its remit is to investigate the Yukon's requirements for spatial data and to establish common data standards and information management. There is a particular interest in developing a Land Interest Management System (LIMS) for the Territory. The Department of Renewable Resources is also developing a Renewable Resources GIS to manage its land use, recreational and wildlife interests.

Canada

28,526 total products were found covering Canada.
Next, select filters, series, and products from the sections below the map.

In Canada mapping is undertaken by agencies of both federal and provincial governments. In topographic surveying and mapping, the federal government is responsible for the first-order geodetic network and for mapping at scales of 1:50,000 and smaller. Provincial governments and metropolitan authorities take on the tasks of more detailed mapping, usually at 1:20,000 scale or larger, as required for resource development, cadastral purposes and for urban planning. Similarly, much thematic mapping, including mineral, soil, land use and forest surveys, is carried out by provincial agencies, with or without federal cooperation. Since the first edition of the book, all these agencies have begun to digitize their map data, to build databases and implement geographical information systems, and to develop instruments and protocols for the distribution of data in digital formats. An umbrella organization, the Canadian Council on Geomatics (CCOG), has provided a forum for federal and provincial agencies to discuss problems of common interest, and together with the Inter-Agency Committee on Geomatics has guided the development of common standards for the exchange of geographical data. Most federal mapping in Canada falls within the ambit of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). Beginning in 1992, NRCan has undergone restructuring, and in 1994 its Surveys, Mapping and Remote Sensing Sector became Geomatics Canada (GC). Together with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Polar Continental Shelf Project, they form the Earth Science Sector of NRCan. The mission of Geomatics Canada is to maintain the national survey and mapping databases, and to produce both digital and paper-based products, including topographic maps, aeronautical charts, aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Geomatics Canada is divided into a number of services and divisions, which include the Legal Surveys and International Boundary Commission, the Geodetic Survey Division, Cartographic Services and the Canada Center for Remote Sensing. Topographic mapping is managed by the Canada Center for Topographic Information (CTI-O), Ottawa, which incorporates the Canada Map Office. A further Center for Topographic Information (CTI-S) is located at Sherbrooke, Quebec, and this is concerned with producing and maintaining the National Topographic Data Base (NTDB) and other digital data sets, and for creating the CGDI data alignment layer. Modern topographic mapping of Canada dates from 1922, when a Board of Topographic Surveys and Maps was established to coordinate the rather haphazard situation that had resulted from the activities of three major mapping authorities which then existed. The Board set out to ensure the adoption of uniform mapping standards and to devise a national topographic system of scales and sheet lines. The projection eventually adopted in 1946 was the Universal Transverse Mercator with the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid. Sheet lines for the topographic series are graticule-based, and are broken down from primary quadrangles each covering 8° longitude and 4°. This sheet system is officially known as the National Topographic System or NTS, and it is important to note that it differs from the International map of the World (IMW) system which is used by many countries, and which is based on a 6° division of longitude. IMW sheet lines are used in Canada only for the 1:1,000,000 IMW maps themselves, for some thematic maps at this scale, and for 1:250,000 Joint Operations Graphic (JOG) charts. The scales of early NTS series of maps were based on imperial units, but these were later phased out in favor of the ratios 1:50,000, 1:125,000, 1:250,000 and 1:500,000. In 1953, 1:25,000 scale maps were also added to this family. Only two federal series now survive, the basic scale 1:50,000, and the 1:250,000 national series. A set of 1:1,000,000 sheets in International map of the World specification was published in the 1960s and 1970s, and some sheets were revised in the 1980s, but the series is no longer maintained. Although the 1:500,000 scale topographic map has also been discontinued, aeronautical charts are still published at this scale. The 1:250,000 scale series was completed in 917 sheets in 1970. It had originated in 1923 as a four miles to the inch (1:253,440) map, the present scale ratio being introduced in 1950. The series progressed rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, following a complete trilateration of the country and the provision of a comprehensive air photographic cover, from which maps could be compiled by photogrammetry. As is common with long-lived series, there have been a number of specification changes to the 1:250,000 scale series, and because some sheets have been revised more frequently than others, there are dissimilarities between sheets of different areas. The modern sheets are printed in six colors with contours ranging in interval from 20 m to 200 m according to the prevailing terrain. A red stipple is used for built-up areas. Roads are shown in color and classified according to suitability for traffic. The UTM grid is shown in light blue at 10 km intervals. Several revision cycles have been established to satisfy differing rates of landscape change, with a 10-year cycle for the most settled areas. The 1:50,000 scale was adopted in 1950, replacing the inch to the mile (1:63,360) series, and all subsequent new maps were published at this scale, while others were progressively converted by photographic enlargement. Other elements of metrication, contours and distances, were not introduced until 1975. Since 1977, all new maps have also been fully bilingual in English and French. About 13,000 sheets are required for complete cover of Canada, and with the exceptions of some areas of the Arctic, principally Baffin Island and Ellesmere Island, this basic scale map is now practically complete. The standard 1:50,000 map is in six colors, but a substantial number of sheets in the wilderness areas of the north have been published only in monochrome or as photomaps. Over 12,000 published sheets now exist in this series. The sheets are of a common 15 minute by 30 minute format (until 1967, a half-sheet format had been used in the south), and all sheets have the UTM grid usually printed in blue or purple. Information content includes much attention to road classification (on the colored sheets) while the northern sheets take account of the variety of swamp types, and of special relief forms such as eskers and pingos, which have their own symbols. Contour interval varies with the type of relief from 5 m in flat areas to 40 m in very rugged ones. A new specification for the 1:50,000 scale map has recently been designed, and a prototype sheet was issued in 1996. Sheets are to be revised and digitized, and printing will in future use the four colour process. New image maps of northern Canada are being published in color. Soviet military topographic mapping of Canada is available at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (86 sheets, complete coverage, published 1961-1993); 1:500,000 (306 sheets, complete coverage, published 1962-1995) and city (1:25,000) topographic mapping of Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal, Ottawa, St. John's, Toronto and Vancouver published between 1973 and 2003. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial. Provincial mapping Although substantial mapping programs are carried out by federal agencies, as described above, all the provinces also have their own mapping agencies. Most operate large scale provincial topographic and cadastral programs. Many of these organizations have been restructured, and in some cases partially privatized, to accommodate a wider remit, including digital mapping and the implementation of GIS. Alberta Responsibilities for provincial mapping in Alberta were reorganized in 1995 with the creation of a Resource Data Division within the Land and Forest Service of Alberta Environmental Protection. The Division comprises a Data Acquisition, a Data Management and a Director of Surveys Branch. This new structure reflects the change of focus from paper map production to the production and management of digital spatial data for the GIS environment, and to the commodification of this data. The Division is currently involved in developing a new series of GIS mapping, including a Base features program and the Alberta vegetation inventory program. The Director of Surveys Branch has responsibility for the Alberta Survey Control Network, and a provincial readjustment to the new Canadian Spatial Reference System is under way. Previously, several provincial digital data sets had been developed, including a 1:20,000 scale digital base map series completed in 1996, which provides full coverage of the province except for the national parks, and incorporates a 10 m or 20 m contour interval. With the completion of this series, the Alberta Government decided to cease direct funding of this spatial data infrastructure, and a nonprofit company. The Spatial Data Warehouse (SDW) was established as a government/private partnership to take over the storage and maintenance of digital mapping. Subsequently, a private company AltaLIS Ltd was contracted to assist SDW. British Columbia In recent years, the BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MELP) has adopted a totally digital production of maps and related materials. Geographic Data BC (GDBC) is responsible for this digital program, and $10 million have been invested in developing the system. The aim is to encourage the sharing of data between the various ministries of the provincial government and industrial organizations. The BC Digital Atlas provides a common framework for the various data sets. An impressive suite of digital products has been developed. These include vector data at 1:2,000,000, 1:250,000 and 1:20,000 scales. The capture of the 1:20,000 scale base mapping, known as TRIM (Terrain Resource Information Management program), was completed in 1996 and represents no fewer than 7,027 sheets, each covering 12 minutes of longitude by 6 minutes of latitude. The projection is UTM, NAD83 datum, and contouring is at 20 m intervals. Manitoba The Manitoba Land Information Center (LMIC), was established in 1993, bringing together the Manitoba Government's mapping and land management interests in order to promote a more integrated approach to the provision of land related data. There is a 1:20,000 scale topographic mapping program for the more populous southern part of the province, and also a program of orthophoto mapping with a scale resolution of 1:10,000 for agricultural areas. A 'spatial data warehouse' has been established under the Manitoba Land Related Information System (MLRIS) and this is managed for the province by a private company, Linnet, as the Land Information Navigator. New Brunswick In 1989, the Provincial Government established a corporation (initially called the New Brunswick Geographic Information Corporation) to manage cadastral survey and registration, land valuation, topographic mapping and to deal with GIS requirements. In 1996 its remit was broadened, with a change of name to Service New Brunswick (SNB). Cadastral maps of the entire province have been converted to digital format and hard copy property maps are available. SNB is also developing an online land records management system, PLANET. Topographic mapping is available in digital format at scales of 1:10,000, 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. This data together form the Enhanced Topographic Database of 1996 (ETB96). Conversion of this data to the NAD83 (CSRS) datum is in progress. The basic scale resource map at 1:10,000 scale is available both digitally and as color orthophoto maps with 5 m contours. A recent project has been the production of 326 coastal zone sheets in the form of digital color orthophotos with 1 m ground resolution. A coastal topographic and a coastal lands database are also in preparation from this photography, which was flown in 1996-97. Newfoundland-Labrador The topographic base mapping of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador now falls under the remit of the Surveys and Mapping Division (SMD) of the Lands Branch of the Government Services and Lands Department, created in 1996. The division is also responsible for geodetic survey, aerial photography, property mapping, the development of digital data standards, and for the provincial Geographical Names Board. SMD has produced community mapping at scales of 1:2,500 or 1:5,000 for most of Newfoundland and parts of Labrador. Nearly 4,000 of these maps have been produced, and in 1992 specifications were developed for digital map production. 1:50,000 and 1:250,000 scale NTS maps have also been digitized through a cost-sharing program with the federal government. SMD has also produced small scale wall maps of Newfoundland and Labrador, and electoral boundary mapping. Northwest Territories Detailed community mapping is undertaken by the Surveys and Mapping Branch within the Department of Municipal and Community Affairs, Whitehorse. Maps at 1:2,000 scale are available, usually with 1 m contours, and new digital mapping is being prepared from recent air photography of the communities. Nova Scotia Topographic mapping is a responsibility of the Land Information Services Division of the Nova Scotia Department of Housing and Municipal Affairs. The division has three sections, of which the Nova Scotia Geomatics Centre (NSGC) at Amherst is directly responsible for creation and maintenance of the Nova Scotia Topographic Database (NSTDB). This includes provincial orthophoto, planimetric and contour mapping at 1:10,000 scale, mapping of urban centers at scales of 1:1,000, 1:2,000 or 1:5,000, and the NTS 1:50,000 and 1:250,000 scale mapping. NSGC also manages the provincial coordinate system, property records and air photography. The province has a corporate strategy for the overall development, coordination and standardization of geographical information which operates under the name of GeoNOVA. Nunavut The new territory of Nunavut was created in 1993, and achieved self-government in 1999. It is covered by the NRCan map of Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory (Map MCR 36) on which the new boundary was overprinted in 1994. Another map of Inuit owned lands is available. An atlas was published in 1992 by the Canadian Circum Polar Institute, Edmonton, which includes material collected to support the land claims agreement reached in 1991 and on which the establishment of the territory is based. A Nunavut Planning Commission was established in 1996 and is preparing land use plans for the territory and mapping its wildlife resources, areas of human impact, waste sites and relicts of the cultural heritage of the population. Much attention has been given to the collection and reinstatement of Inuit place names as a means of maintaining the cultural identity of the people. Initially this took place around the Inuit settlement of Nunavik at the instigation of the Avataq Cultural Institute, and a series of 1:50,000 topographic map sheets has been in progress consisting of the official NTS base maps to which the Inuit names have been added. Currently a South Baffin Place Names Project is underway by the Nunavut Research Institute, and the names collected will be printed on 1:250,000 scale topographic map sheets. Ontario Ontario's basic mapping program (OBM) was begun in 1976 and is carried out by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). OBM maps have been published at 1:10,000 scale with 5 m contours for the south of the province, and at 1:20,000 with 20 m contours for the near north. The projection and grid are UTM with a standard 50 × 50 cm sheet format. The production of these printed paper maps continued until 1988 when the specification was modified to accommodate the requirements of the Provincial Digital Topographic Database. The digital OBM program was completed in 1998, providing large scale data for all of southern Ontario and the near north. A project to digitize the 1:50,000 NTS maps covering the area north of latitude 50° is under way with joint provincial and federal funding, and there are plans also to create digital maps for the Hudson Bay Lowlands presently covered only by photomaps. Planimetric mapping of urban areas has been undertaken at 1:2,000 scale with a 1 m contour interval, but this mapping is now produced by the municipalities. Prince Edward Island In Prince Edward Island the topographic base mapping is the responsibility of the Department of the Provincial Treasury, Geomatics Information Center, Information Technology and Geomatics Services Section. Digital and hard copy Enhanced topographic base mapping at 1:10,000 scale is maintained for the whole province together with cadastral mapping at 1:5,000 scale and larger scale mapping of the urban centers of Charlottetown (1:2,000) and Summerside (1:1,000). The 1:10,000 scale map was derived initially from 1985 and 1988 aerial photography, and contours are being added to the series with a 2 m interval. Many additional layers of graphical information have also been captured, mostly of administrative boundaries. A new high precision GPS network has been developed as part of the Canadian Spatial Reference System. Quebec Topographic mapping of Quebec is published by the province's Ministère des Ressources Naturelles (MRN), Secteur des Terres. The principal topographic series is the 1:20,000 scale base map, covering Quebec south of latitude 51° N. Sheets are indexed on the Système québécois de référence cartographique (SQRC), and are available in both printed and in structured digital vector format, forming the Base de données topographiques du Québec (BDTQ). The digital program was completed in 1999. A cadastral version of the 1:20,000 scale map is also published. A Base des données topographiques et administratives (BDTA), scale 1:250,000, has been constructed from topographic data contained in the federal 1:50,000 scale series and administrative boundaries from a digital boundaries data set, the Fichier informatique des limites administratives (FILA). Smaller scale databases are being constructed at scales of 1:1,000,000 Base de données géographiques et administratives (BDGA) and 1:8,000,000 Base générale et administrative du Québec (BGAQ). Saskatchewan SaskGeomatics Division of Saskatchewan Property Management Corporation, has replaced the former Central Survey and Mapping Agency and is developing SaskGIS, a provincial database providing topographic, cadastral and small scale mapping in digital format. It will also include a road network database linked to an address and property register, and digital orthophotos and satellite imagery. A SaskGIS data directory is being prepared. SaskGeomatics is also responsible for the coordination of GIS implementation throughout the province, and works with both government and private sector to this end. Other responsibilities include management of the provincial legal survey system, geodetic control, and the production of provincial topographic and cadastral maps. Since 1997, the province has been fully covered by topographic maps at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000, completed under a joint federal-provincial program. These topographic maps are being captured as structured digital data. For larger scale cover, new orthophotos are being produced at 1:20,000 or 1:15,000 scale, funded through private-public partnerships. A 24-class land cover map of the province is being prepared from LANDSAT imagery. Yukon In 1992, the Yukon Geographic Information System Coordinating Unit (YGISCU) was established with the support of the Yukon Territorial Government, the Federal Government and the City of Whitehorse. Its remit is to investigate the Yukon's requirements for spatial data and to establish common data standards and information management. There is a particular interest in developing a Land Interest Management System (LIMS) for the Territory. The Department of Renewable Resources is also developing a Renewable Resources GIS to manage its land use, recreational and wildlife interests.

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