United States

154,721 total products were found covering United States.
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The mapping of the United States is carried out at both a federal and state level. In addition to the numerous federal agencies which are involved in some kind of mapping or spatial data collection activity, there are also government mapping agencies in each of the 50 states, which undertake their own mapping or engage in cooperative programs with the federal government. Also at county and municipality level, many local government agencies are involved in spatial data handling. Finally, there are many private mapping companies, some providing custom mapping services, some publishing their own products, and many doing both. Over the last decade, all aspects of mapping and spatial data handling in the United States have continued to move very strongly into a digital environment. The use of geographical information systems (GIS) has proliferated and has been stimulated by the growing availability of public domain spatial data in digital form. In 1990, a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) was established to coordinate the holdings of digital data at the federal level. A cornerstone of developments in spatial data collection and handling has been recognition of the need to share resources in order to avoid costly and unnecessary duplication of effort, and the consequent formation of partnerships between federal, state and private mapping organizations and institutions. This is being achieved through the development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), initiated in 1994 to provide a framework of policies and programs for the cooperative collection, integration and dissemination of spatial data. Hand in hand with these developments has been the need to establish standards for digital data exchange, and in 1992, a Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) was approved, becoming mandatory for federal agencies in 1994. Federal mapping agencies The principal federal mapping agency is the United States Geological Survey (USGS), founded in 1879 initially with the task of classifying public lands in addition to surveying the geological and mineral resources of the country. Today it continues to be responsible for the national topographic mapping programme as well as for earth science and certain other kinds of mapping. USGS has four major divisions, concerned respectively with national mapping, earth sciences, water resources and biological resources. Of these, the National Mapping Division is responsible for the National Mapping Program (NMP). In spite of the organization's name and its varied concerns, the printed topographic map has long been the USGS's best known product. Systematic topographic survey was initiated in 1882. The scales originally adopted were 1:125,000 and 1:62,500 (a little more than an inch to the mile), and in the early days, progress was quite rapid, 20 percent cover being achieved in the first 10 years. Since 1885, the topographic survey has proceeded through cooperative agreements between the federal survey and state surveys, with shared funding. Most of the country's topographic archive is a product of this cooperation, but it led to unequal progress between states, and by 1950 only about 50 percent of the land area had been covered at the basic mapping scale of 1:62,500. From about this time a shift was made to the preferred scale of 1:24,000 (one inch to 2,000 feet), which had been introduced in the 1930s in a cooperative mapping program with the Tennessee Valley Authority, and from the 1960s, revision of the 1:62,500 sheets ceased. In the 1980s there was a drive to complete the basic scale mapping, with some sheets being issued as provisional 'P' editions, and by 1991, the conterminous United States had been completely covered by maps at the 1:24,000 scale (or in a few areas, by alternative 1:25,000 scale metric maps). In Alaska the basic scale is 1:63,360 (one inch to the mile), introduced in 1948, with some limited mapping at 1:24,000 or 1:25,000 in urban or developing areas. About 57,000 sheets are required to cover the conterminous United States at 1:24,000 scale, while Alaska requires 2,920 sheets at 1:63,360 scale. The 1:24,000 scale sheets are commonly referred to as 7.5-minute quadrangles or 'quads', since each sheet covers a quadrangular area of 7.5' latitude by 7.5' longitude. The projection is Transverse Mercator, and the UTM grid is shown on the face of the map. Contemporary maps use the North American 1983 Datum and GRS 80 spheroid. Sheets are printed in five or six colors, with brown for relief features, black for cultural information and place names, and blue for water. Woodland is in green, and red is used for land division and major roads. Built areas, formerly in screened red, are now shown in grey. Contours are in feet (except on the 1:25,000 scale sheets), with the interval varying according to ruggedness of the terrain on any given sheet. The quads are usually referred to by name, and are accessed on a state-by-state basis. The conterminous United States are also covered by a 1:100,000 scale quadrangle series, began in 1975, with sheets covering 30' × 60' and with metric contours and distances. This series was completed in 1986 for all states except Alaska, to meet a deadline required for the 1990 census, but many sheets were initially only available in a planimetric version. Subsequently these have been converted to full topographic editions. Also beginning about this time, but not for all states, is a series of maps on county sheet lines. These are published at either 1:50,000 or 1:100,000 scale and each county map comprises one or more sheets according to the size of the county. They are derived from the 1:24,000 scale quadrangle maps. A 1:250,000 topographic series also covers the whole of the United States. This was initiated in the 1950s by the Army Map Service (now NIMA), but was taken over in 1958 by USGS as part of its civil topographic mapping program. 489 sheets cover the conterminous United States, and a further 153 cover Alaska. The projection is Transverse Mercator, and the sheets are subdivisions of the International map of the World, each covering 1° latitude by 2° longitude. Although numbered, sheets are usually identified by name, sheets east of the Mississippi entitled are Eastern United States, and those west of the river, Western United States. The series has a UTM grid, but also shows township and range on the western sheets. Contour interval varies with the nature of the terrain. Some sheets have been published as satellite image maps, usually with the conventional line map printed on the reverse, and maps covering coastal areas will all eventually include bathymetric contours. The USGS also publishes a series of state maps, usually in three separate editions, comprising a base map, a contoured (topographic) map and a relief shaded map. For most states the scale is 1:500,000, although a few maps are at smaller scales, and some of the smaller states are grouped on a single sheet. In addition to the standard map series, USGS has published an extensive list of specially formatted maps of national parks and monuments. The maps are of varying scales, and many have shaded relief and textual commentary. Since the early years of the LANDSAT satellite remote sensing program, USGS has also issued, through the 1970s and 1980s, a range of satellite image maps. In 1975, as part of its National Mapping Program, USGS began to compile a base series of land use and land cover maps (LULC) sourced from aerial photographs. Publication scale was mainly 1:250,000 (some coastal areas are at 1:100,000). LULC maps use a land cover classification of nine general and 37 sub-categories. Sets of five associated maps were compiled at the same scale, showing respectively administrative boundaries, hydrologic units, census county divisions and federal and state land ownership. With the completion of the basic scale topographic map archive, attention has focused on the problems of revising and maintaining the currency of this series. Most 1:24,000 scale sheets are subjected to a rapid process of 'limited update' sourced from digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), but without the field checking necessary to produce 'standard updates'. Eventually a five to ten-year revision cycle is planned. Meanwhile, developments in the production of digital data have continued to evolve rapidly, and the aim is to convert the entire 1:24,000 scale archive to a digital format, as part of the National Digital Cartographic Data Base. Essentially, digitizing and revising the series have become integrated activities. A revised specification for the basic scale mapping has aided the digital process, while advanced cartographic systems installed at Reston have facilitated the digital production of hard copy maps. The first digitally produced quadrangle map appeared in 1993. Soviet military topographic mapping of the United States is available at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (91 sheets, complete coverage, published 1950-1993); 1:500,000 (266 sheets, complete coverage, published 1955-1990); 1:200,000 (1,803 sheets, primarily complete coverage, published 1956-1987); 1:100,000 (2,151 sheets, partial coverage, published 1961-1977) and city (1:10,000 to 1:25,000) topographic mapping of 19 major cities from Boston to Worcester published between 1975 and 1985. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial. State mapping agencies The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is exceptional in having a long established, detailed mapping program. This includes a 968-sheet series of 1:24,000 quadrangle maps, with all sheets revised since 1990. The program also includes a series of multicolour county base maps, mainly at 1:75,000 scale and derived in part from USGS mapping, a series of urban area maps and village atlases, and 1:250,000 scale state mapping available as a four-sheet paper map or in atlas format. Although not a state survey (it is a federal corporation) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has a regional interest in the whole of the Tennessee river catchment, and is an important source of maps of that area. It established a mapping office at Chattanooga in 1936 and continues to provide a range of mapping, including topographic quadrangle maps in cooperation with the USGS, navigational charts and lake recreation maps.

United States

154,721 total products were found covering United States.
Next, select filters, series, and products from the sections below the map.

The mapping of the United States is carried out at both a federal and state level. In addition to the numerous federal agencies which are involved in some kind of mapping or spatial data collection activity, there are also government mapping agencies in each of the 50 states, which undertake their own mapping or engage in cooperative programs with the federal government. Also at county and municipality level, many local government agencies are involved in spatial data handling. Finally, there are many private mapping companies, some providing custom mapping services, some publishing their own products, and many doing both. Over the last decade, all aspects of mapping and spatial data handling in the United States have continued to move very strongly into a digital environment. The use of geographical information systems (GIS) has proliferated and has been stimulated by the growing availability of public domain spatial data in digital form. In 1990, a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) was established to coordinate the holdings of digital data at the federal level. A cornerstone of developments in spatial data collection and handling has been recognition of the need to share resources in order to avoid costly and unnecessary duplication of effort, and the consequent formation of partnerships between federal, state and private mapping organizations and institutions. This is being achieved through the development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), initiated in 1994 to provide a framework of policies and programs for the cooperative collection, integration and dissemination of spatial data. Hand in hand with these developments has been the need to establish standards for digital data exchange, and in 1992, a Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) was approved, becoming mandatory for federal agencies in 1994. Federal mapping agencies The principal federal mapping agency is the United States Geological Survey (USGS), founded in 1879 initially with the task of classifying public lands in addition to surveying the geological and mineral resources of the country. Today it continues to be responsible for the national topographic mapping programme as well as for earth science and certain other kinds of mapping. USGS has four major divisions, concerned respectively with national mapping, earth sciences, water resources and biological resources. Of these, the National Mapping Division is responsible for the National Mapping Program (NMP). In spite of the organization's name and its varied concerns, the printed topographic map has long been the USGS's best known product. Systematic topographic survey was initiated in 1882. The scales originally adopted were 1:125,000 and 1:62,500 (a little more than an inch to the mile), and in the early days, progress was quite rapid, 20 percent cover being achieved in the first 10 years. Since 1885, the topographic survey has proceeded through cooperative agreements between the federal survey and state surveys, with shared funding. Most of the country's topographic archive is a product of this cooperation, but it led to unequal progress between states, and by 1950 only about 50 percent of the land area had been covered at the basic mapping scale of 1:62,500. From about this time a shift was made to the preferred scale of 1:24,000 (one inch to 2,000 feet), which had been introduced in the 1930s in a cooperative mapping program with the Tennessee Valley Authority, and from the 1960s, revision of the 1:62,500 sheets ceased. In the 1980s there was a drive to complete the basic scale mapping, with some sheets being issued as provisional 'P' editions, and by 1991, the conterminous United States had been completely covered by maps at the 1:24,000 scale (or in a few areas, by alternative 1:25,000 scale metric maps). In Alaska the basic scale is 1:63,360 (one inch to the mile), introduced in 1948, with some limited mapping at 1:24,000 or 1:25,000 in urban or developing areas. About 57,000 sheets are required to cover the conterminous United States at 1:24,000 scale, while Alaska requires 2,920 sheets at 1:63,360 scale. The 1:24,000 scale sheets are commonly referred to as 7.5-minute quadrangles or 'quads', since each sheet covers a quadrangular area of 7.5' latitude by 7.5' longitude. The projection is Transverse Mercator, and the UTM grid is shown on the face of the map. Contemporary maps use the North American 1983 Datum and GRS 80 spheroid. Sheets are printed in five or six colors, with brown for relief features, black for cultural information and place names, and blue for water. Woodland is in green, and red is used for land division and major roads. Built areas, formerly in screened red, are now shown in grey. Contours are in feet (except on the 1:25,000 scale sheets), with the interval varying according to ruggedness of the terrain on any given sheet. The quads are usually referred to by name, and are accessed on a state-by-state basis. The conterminous United States are also covered by a 1:100,000 scale quadrangle series, began in 1975, with sheets covering 30' × 60' and with metric contours and distances. This series was completed in 1986 for all states except Alaska, to meet a deadline required for the 1990 census, but many sheets were initially only available in a planimetric version. Subsequently these have been converted to full topographic editions. Also beginning about this time, but not for all states, is a series of maps on county sheet lines. These are published at either 1:50,000 or 1:100,000 scale and each county map comprises one or more sheets according to the size of the county. They are derived from the 1:24,000 scale quadrangle maps. A 1:250,000 topographic series also covers the whole of the United States. This was initiated in the 1950s by the Army Map Service (now NIMA), but was taken over in 1958 by USGS as part of its civil topographic mapping program. 489 sheets cover the conterminous United States, and a further 153 cover Alaska. The projection is Transverse Mercator, and the sheets are subdivisions of the International map of the World, each covering 1° latitude by 2° longitude. Although numbered, sheets are usually identified by name, sheets east of the Mississippi entitled are Eastern United States, and those west of the river, Western United States. The series has a UTM grid, but also shows township and range on the western sheets. Contour interval varies with the nature of the terrain. Some sheets have been published as satellite image maps, usually with the conventional line map printed on the reverse, and maps covering coastal areas will all eventually include bathymetric contours. The USGS also publishes a series of state maps, usually in three separate editions, comprising a base map, a contoured (topographic) map and a relief shaded map. For most states the scale is 1:500,000, although a few maps are at smaller scales, and some of the smaller states are grouped on a single sheet. In addition to the standard map series, USGS has published an extensive list of specially formatted maps of national parks and monuments. The maps are of varying scales, and many have shaded relief and textual commentary. Since the early years of the LANDSAT satellite remote sensing program, USGS has also issued, through the 1970s and 1980s, a range of satellite image maps. In 1975, as part of its National Mapping Program, USGS began to compile a base series of land use and land cover maps (LULC) sourced from aerial photographs. Publication scale was mainly 1:250,000 (some coastal areas are at 1:100,000). LULC maps use a land cover classification of nine general and 37 sub-categories. Sets of five associated maps were compiled at the same scale, showing respectively administrative boundaries, hydrologic units, census county divisions and federal and state land ownership. With the completion of the basic scale topographic map archive, attention has focused on the problems of revising and maintaining the currency of this series. Most 1:24,000 scale sheets are subjected to a rapid process of 'limited update' sourced from digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), but without the field checking necessary to produce 'standard updates'. Eventually a five to ten-year revision cycle is planned. Meanwhile, developments in the production of digital data have continued to evolve rapidly, and the aim is to convert the entire 1:24,000 scale archive to a digital format, as part of the National Digital Cartographic Data Base. Essentially, digitizing and revising the series have become integrated activities. A revised specification for the basic scale mapping has aided the digital process, while advanced cartographic systems installed at Reston have facilitated the digital production of hard copy maps. The first digitally produced quadrangle map appeared in 1993. Soviet military topographic mapping of the United States is available at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (91 sheets, complete coverage, published 1950-1993); 1:500,000 (266 sheets, complete coverage, published 1955-1990); 1:200,000 (1,803 sheets, primarily complete coverage, published 1956-1987); 1:100,000 (2,151 sheets, partial coverage, published 1961-1977) and city (1:10,000 to 1:25,000) topographic mapping of 19 major cities from Boston to Worcester published between 1975 and 1985. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial. State mapping agencies The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is exceptional in having a long established, detailed mapping program. This includes a 968-sheet series of 1:24,000 quadrangle maps, with all sheets revised since 1990. The program also includes a series of multicolour county base maps, mainly at 1:75,000 scale and derived in part from USGS mapping, a series of urban area maps and village atlases, and 1:250,000 scale state mapping available as a four-sheet paper map or in atlas format. Although not a state survey (it is a federal corporation) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has a regional interest in the whole of the Tennessee river catchment, and is an important source of maps of that area. It established a mapping office at Chattanooga in 1936 and continues to provide a range of mapping, including topographic quadrangle maps in cooperation with the USGS, navigational charts and lake recreation maps.

United States

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