Topographic survey and mapping is the responsibility of the
Topografische Dienst (TDN), Emmen, founded in 1815
and part of the Ministry of Defence. Originally called the
Topografisch Bureau, it acquired its present name in 1931
when it was merged with its own lithographic press.
Currently it produces mapping for both military and civilian
purposes. Following a reorganization in 1993, TND has
been moving towards a more commercial and user-sensitive
Since 1932, topographic maps have been produced from
vertical aerial photographs, and from these the basic scale
mapping, a series of 675 mainly monochromatic 1:10,000
scale sheets was produced. In areas of coastal dunes, 2.5 m
interval contours are added in brown. This series is still
available in its paper format, and there is a parallel series of
altitude maps, the Hoogtekaart van Nederland, which (with
the exception of Zuid-Limburg) show a dense network of
spot heights in black against a grey image of the standard
1:10,000 map. In Zuid-Limburg the series is in two colors,
with 2.5 m interval contours in brown.
Digitizing of the 1:10,000 scale map was completed in 1997
to provide a core data set, called TOP10vector. This is available
in a number of formats. A separate digital data set has been
constructed for height data (the dense network of spot heights
compiled from spirit levelling and photogrammetry, and previously
shown in the paper 1:10,000 scale Hoogtekaart), and
there is also a road center-line data set, TOP10wegen.
The other principal topographic series are at scales of
1:25,000 and 1:50,000.
The 1:25,000 scale map covers the country in 307 sheets,
and is available in a full six-color version or a grey version
with contours in brown and water in blue. Most sheets cover
an area of land 10 km × 12.5 km in extent, although sheets
at the coast or in border areas have modified sheet lines, and
there has been some recent renumbering of sheets in the
southwest of the country. Contours are at 2.5 m intervals,
derived from the altitude map, the projection is stereo-graphic,
Bessel ellipsoid, and there is a kilometric grid. Since
1987, the 1:25,000 scale sheets have been issued in a new
edition with integral yellow covers and modified sheet lines.
The series is also available in 14 bound provincial volumes
published jointly with Wolters-Noordhoff. The 1:25,000
scale mapping has been captured as raster data at a resolution
of 250 dpi and is available in TIFF format.
The 1:50,000 scale series comprises 101 sheets, and is also
on a stereographic projection, Bessel ellipsoid. It is published
in civil and military editions, the former having the national
grid system and the latter the UTM grid. The map is in six
colors, with a 2.5 m contour interval. A mainly monochrome
version is also available. Sheets cover a 20 km x
25 km area of land. A special cyclists' version of this map,
prepared in cooperation with ANWB, is available in four-sheet
sets with overprinted cycle routes. A 1:50,000 scale digital vector data set was created
by generalization from the 1:10,000 vector data. This is
called TOP50vector. A road center-line version is also available
as TOP50wegen, and there is a scanned color raster
version, T0P50raster, of the paper map series which is
complete on four CD-ROMs.
A set of eight 1:100,000 scale sheets was produced by photo-reduction
of 1:50,000 scale maps dating from the period
1970 to 1991. It is still available, but has not been revised.
For motorists, there is a 1:250,000 scale Wegenkaart van
Nederland, printed back-to-back and incorporating an index
and a road distance table. This is also available in two single-sided
sheets. Digital versions have been produced in both raster (TOP250raster) and vector
Soviet military topographic mapping of the Netherlands exists at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (4 sheets, complete coverage, published 1985-1990);
1:500,000 (4 sheets, complete coverage, published 1989-1995); 1:200,000 (18 sheets, complete coverage, published 1979-1989); 1:100,000 (51 sheets, complete coverage,
published 1978-1991); 1:50,000 (57 sheets, partial coverage, published 1986-1990) and city (1:10,000 to 1:25,000) topographic mapping of 23 major cities from Amersfoort to Zwolle
published between 1972 and 1991. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial.
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