Since 1983 the General Command of Mapping, (Harita Genel Komutanligi (HGK)) has been responsible for geodetic, topographic and aerial surveying of Turkey and for publication of official map series. Its history can be traced to the establishment in 1895 of a military mapping section in the general staff, which began the systematic survey of the whole country. A 1:25,000 scale topographic map was started in 1909 and remains the basic scale. Early sheets were on the Bonne projection, from 1931 the Gauss Krϋger projection was adopted and since 1950 sheets have been based on the UTM grid and projection, Hayford ellipsoid. This series was completed in 5,564 sheets and is under photogrammetric revision, the second edition of these maps was completed in 1996. Relief is shown with 20 m contours and the map is in five colors. Since 1994 map components have been digitized. From 1996 data capture started for the establishment of a 1:25,000 scale based national geographical information system, and a digital production flowline is now used for production of hard copy mapping in this series.
A 1:50,000 scale map (Series K716) is being revised using stereo SPOT satellite imagery; sheets were originally derived from parent 1:25,000 maps and cover 15′ quadrangles. The series was completed between 1973 and 1995 with about 1,500 maps needed for complete coverage. 1:100,000 scale mapping is also complete for the country in 339 sheets. The first edition of this series was completed between 1950 and 1972 by generalization from 1:25,000 scale coverage. A second edition was derived from 1:50,000 scale components and is nearing completion. There are plans to generate these maps in the future from the 1:25,000 scale data base, but in 1999 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scale series were still produced using conventional cartographic methods.
There are also moves to establish a Turkish national fundamental GPS network to offer more accurate horizontal and vertical survey control.
New 1:250,000 scale mapping conforming to JOG specifications was revised in the 1980s. In 1998 gazetteer data from this source were captured in digital form and there are plans to produce an ARC/INFO-based 1:250,000 scale GIS.
Smaller scale series include 1:500,000 coverage conforming to (Series 1404) specifications, and a road map series at this scale prepared in conjunction with German commercial house Ryborsch. A 1:1,000,000 scale national digital geographic database for the country is being established. HGK, also publishes Turkish sheets in the International map of the World (IMW), and a number of smaller scale administrative and physical maps.
Soviet military topographic mapping of Turkey is available at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (11 sheets, complete coverage, published 1974-1990); 1:500,000 (29 sheets, complete coverage, published 1971-1989); 1:200,000 (169 sheets, complete coverage, published 1970-1991); 1:100,000 (590 sheets, complete coverage, published 1970-1994); 1:50,000 (1,418 sheets, complete coverage, published 1971-2002) and city (1:10,000 to 1:25,000) topographic mapping of 30 major cities from Adana to Zonguldak published between 1976 and 1994. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial.
Hydrographic charts of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas are published by Seyir Hidrografi ve Osinografi Dairesi Baskanligi (SHODB) in the Turkish navy. SHODB was established in 1909 and also compiles a range of oceanographic studies of these areas.
Geological and other earth science mapping of Turkey is carried out by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Mϋdϋrlϋgϋ (MTA)). 1:500,000 scale geological coverage was completed in the 1960s. A three-color 1:100,000 scale series, published with sheet explanations is actively in progress, with five or six new sheets published each year. Over 50 maps have so far been published. Other smaller scale applied earth science themes are also issued by MTA, notably geomorphology, and several mineral themes, and local 1:50,000 scale mapping is also compiled for some areas.
Divisions of the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Rural Affairs have also been active in the map publication. The General Directorate of Rural Affairs (Koy Hizmetleri Genel Mϋdϋrlϋgϋ (KHGM)) compiles large scale maps of settlement areas and public works. Using HGK 1:25,000 and 1:100,000 scale bases KHGM has compiled soil and fertilizer maps issued as a series of provincial atlases. Orman Genel Mϋdϋrlϋgϋ (The General Directorate of Forestry) also uses HGK 1:25,000 and 1:100,000 scale base maps for its forest mapping programs. 370 1:100,000 and about 5,500 1:25,000 scale sheets are maintained, and from 1994 a new digital program was started, with updates to forest coverage derived from 1:15,000 scale aerial photographs. Derslet Meterologi Isleri Genel Mϋdϋrlϋgϋ (The General Directorate of Meteorological Services) produces climatological mapping, including a 1:4,000,000 scale atlas, published in 1989.
German agencies have also been involved in the thematic mapping of Turkey. The Tϋbinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (TAVO), includes a number of historical maps of the country, as well as ethnic mapping, land use, geomorphology, natural regions and geological coverage, mostly at 1:2,000,000 scale. The German earth science mapping agency Bundesanstalt fϋr Bodenforschung und Rohstoffe (BfGR) has published palaeogeographic mapping of the country and some larger scale regional full color geological maps. An energy map covering the country was published in 1995 by Petroleum Economist (PE).
Large scale maps of Turkey are prepared for cadastral and planning purposes by Tapu ve Kadastro, established in 1925, in conjunction with HGK. These comprise 1:5,000 scale topographic and cadastral maps, compiled from aerial coverage, which since 1955 have been produced in a single national specification and using unified sheet lines. 1:1,000 scale urban maps and a wide variety of other cadastral coverage derived from ground survey are also issued. Since 1988 there has been a project to reorganize these 300,000 large scale map sheets into a single digital system, based upon national coordinates in a three degree UTM projection. The larger municipalities in Turkey also maintain mapping offices. Istanbul for example is covered in over 2,000 1:1,000 scale planning maps.
The General Directorate of Highways (Harita Karayollari Genel Mϋdϋrlϋgϋ) issues a regularly revised double-sided small scale road map of the country with larger scale insets of Ankara and Istanbul areas.
Commercial map producers in Turkey are AMD, Ankara, whose range is printed by De Agostini, Italy and includes coverage of cities, as well as general maps of the country and of North Cyprus, and NET Turistik, who distribute maps of the country from several British cartographic houses and have also started to produce their own local cartography of tourist areas. Tϋrkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kuramu (TTOK) publishes motoring maps of Turkey, based upon Ravenstein mapping.
A number of overseas commercial publishers issue tourist maps of Turkey, or of the increasingly important holiday areas of the country. These include ESR, HarperCollins, Lonely Planet, New Holland, RV, Ryborsch, Kϋmmerly + Frey, Karto + Grafik and Hallwag, with West Col issuing coverage of the Mount Ararat area. Town maps are published by Hallwag and Falk.
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