The topographic mapping authority in Peru is the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGNP), Lima, which falls within the authority of the Ministry of Defence. The origins of the institute go back to the first decade of the century, and there have been several changes of name, most recently from Instituto Geográfico Militar.
The first national map to be undertaken was the 1:200,000 scale Carta nacional. This four-color map was issued from 1922 to 1958, but only about 35 percent of the country (mainly the coastal zone or costa) was covered. A 1:100,000 scale map, issued over the same time period, was merely an enlargement of this map.
Soviet military topographic mapping of Peru is available at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (13 sheets, complete coverage, published 1962-1990); 1:500,000 (37 sheets, complete coverage, published 1976-1984); 1:200,000 (2 sheets, southern tip of country covered, published 1980-1981) and a city (1:25,000) topographic map of Lima published in 1980. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial.
A digital mineral site database for Peru, INCA, has been assembled by an American company, Resource Science Inc (RSI). This incorporates the 1:1,000,000 scale geological mapping from INGEMMET, together with reference data from the Digital Chart of the World, and 9,000 mineral site records.
The Dirección de Hidrografía y Navegación de la Marina publishes medium scale nautical charts of the Peruvian coastal waters and large scale charts of bays and port approaches.
Earth science mapping is the responsibility of the Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalύrgico de Peru (INGEMMET), formed in 1979 by the merging of two geological and mining institutes, but its origins go back to 1902. The current priority is the completion of the 1:100,000 scale Carta geológica nacional, based on topographic sheet lines, for the whole national territory. Publication of new sheets in the series progressed very slowly for many years, with only about 75 sheets published by 1991. But it was decided from 1993 to accelerate production and by the end of 1995, 178 sheets had been published, covering all the coastal area, and many more were in preparation. Sheets are issued in groups, together with an accompanying monograph. In 1995, digital production of this series commenced. There is also a six-sheet geological map at 1:1,000,000 scale of the whole country, which is also available in digital format.
Mineral deposit maps and 1:250,000 scale geological maps are available for some departments, and small scale tectonic and mineral occurrence maps of the whole country have also been published. A program of natural hazard assessment (Programa Nacional de Riesgos Naturales) has resulted in publication of a number of maps and map sets classifying seismic, volcanic and climatic risks in various regions.
Foreign earth science agencies have aided in the mapping of Peru, particularly in the geological mapping of the Andes. 1:500,000 scale geological maps of the Peruvian Cordillera were published by the French Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM) in 1978 and by the British Geological Survey. More recently, cooperative programs have been undertaken with organizations from Germany, Japan and Canada, and in 1996 a project was initiated with ORSTOM and the French Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) to map and evaluate the mineral resources of 61 quadrangles in the Eastern Cordillera and 220 in the Llanura Amazónica.
In 1948, a mapping agreement was signed with the Inter-American Geodetic Survey (IAGS) and 1:60,000 scale air photography was obtained for most of the country in the late 1950s and early 1960s from sorties flown by the USAAF and by private companies. This photography was used to compile current map series. Ultimately, in 1958, a new national base map at 1:100,000 scale was initiated. This photogrammetric map was prepared by IGNP in collaboration with the IAGS. It is printed in five colors with a 50 m contour interval. The projection is UTM, International (Hayford) ellipsoid. Sheets each cover an area of 30 minutes of latitude by 30 minutes of longitude. The series has made rapid progress over the past 10 years and is now almost complete, although some of it is in the form of LANDSAT image maps with no contours. In 1990, GPS was introduced to provide geodetic control of this series and since 1993, WGS 84 datum has been adopted.
A conventional 1:250,000 scale series covers the coastal area, while a complete cover of the country in the form of LANDSAT satellite image maps was prepared by a German company in the mid-1980s. 88 sheets were distributed as part of the now defunct PAIGH Hemispheric Mapping Program. These sheets have no heights or contours but they are in color with UTM grid and some toponyms and added linework. A 1:50,000 scale series is also in progress, but covers only 14 percent of the country, while 1:25,000 scale mapping is limited to a few agricultural areas.
The Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) was established in 1992 and incorporated the former National Office for the Evaluation of Natural Resources (ONERN). The latter produced ecological, soil and land use maps in the 1960s and 1970s. INRENA’s current concerns are with the evaluation and management of natural resources for sustainable development, and the organization is working on forest management and anti-desertification programs. There is a collaborative program with the University of Turku, Finland, on using remotely sensed imagery for investigating biological resources in the Amazon region.
The Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (SENAMHI) has produced a number of climatic maps of the country, hydrological maps of river basins and an atlas of evaporation.
Small scale maps published by IGNP include a new 1:500,000 scale series in progress in 13 sheets. There is also a set of 1:500,000 scale aeronautical charts, for which the final cartography and publication was undertaken in Germany. Road, administrative and general relief maps are published at scales of 1:5,000,000; 1:2,000,000 and 1:1,000,000. A set of 24 colorful departmental maps at various scales and with layered relief were published during the period 1973 to 1986.
IGNP publishes maps of Lima, the capital, at scales of 1:25,000; 1:10,000 and 1:5,000. A prestigious national atlas was published in 1989.
Peruvian commercial map publishers of tourist maps and city street maps include Editorial LIMA 2000, Cartográfica Nacional and Libreria Internacional del Perύ.
The Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI) prepares maps for use in the censuses of population, and issues 1:5,000 scale urban mapping and administrative maps of each department. Cadastral mapping is carried out by the Oficina General de Catastro for rural areas, while for the city and province of Lima, computer-assisted cadastral mapping is undertaken by the Empresa Municipal de Catastro Integral.
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